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Over time, political analysts erased the historical specificity of fascism and deployed it as an analytic category. In contrast, populism is an analytic category that depending on context, includes varying aggregates of popular preferences that often lack a coherent and unifying ideology. This review draws upon interdisciplinary scholarship and empirical cases to revisit the terms fascism and populism.

Institutionalized politics is its focus. Contemporary fascist and populist politics is increasingly global. This review argues that comparative political and historical sociologists need to develop an analytically cogent approach to researching this encroaching political phenomenon.

The review suggests a research agenda that treats fascism and populism as more than conceptual categories. View Review in Advance. There has been a lack of debate between and frameworks for theories of the causes of poverty.

This article proposes that most theories of poverty can be productively categorized into three broader families of theories: behavioral, structural, and political. Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.

Furthermore, I explain how to integrate, classify studies into, and distinguish between theories. Ultimately, I argue that poverty research would benefit from more explicit theory and theoretical debate, as well as greater interdisciplinarity and integration between studies of the United States, rich democracies, and developing countries.

Anthony A. Braga, Rod K. The police need public support and cooperation to be effective in controlling crime and holding offenders accountable.

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social science | History, Disciplines, & Facts | Britannica

In many disadvantaged communities of color, poor relationships between the police and residents undermine effective policing. Weak police—minority community relationships are rooted in a long history of discriminatory practices and contemporary proactive policing strategies that are overly aggressive and associated with racial disparities.

There are no simple solutions to address the complex rift between the police and the minority communities that they serve. The available evidence suggests that there are policies and practices that could improve police—minority community relations and enhance police effectiveness. Police departments should conduct more sophisticated analysis of crime problems to ensure that crime-control programs are not indiscriminate and unfocused, engage residents in their crime reduction efforts by revitalizing community policing, ensure procedurally just police contacts with citizens, and implement problem-solving strategies to prevent crimes beyond surveillance and enforcement actions.

This article proposes that the end of life is a uniquely contemporary life course stage. Epidemiologic, technological, and cultural shifts over the past two centuries have created a context in which dying has shifted from a sudden and unexpected event to a protracted, anticipated transition following an incurable chronic illness. We describe key components of end-of-life well-being, and highlight socioeconomic and race disparities therein, drawing on fundamental cause theory.

We describe two practices that are critical to end-of-life well-being advance care planning, and hospice , and underscore limitations that may undermine their effectiveness. We conclude with recommendations for future sociological research which could inform practices to enhance patient and family well-being at the end of life. Shannon E. Scholars have long looked to family composition to understand child well-being. We review some of the structural and cultural factors that have contributed to rising levels of family instability and highlight the emergence of national data to measure it.

We then review the hypothesis that guides much of the scholarship on family instability and critically assess the contributions of this work to the understanding of child well-being. Research on time use has seen several major developments in recent years. These include the adoption of exciting new technologies e.

Annual Review of Sociology

These developments are transforming our understanding of the social patterning of everyday behavior. This chapter provides updates about this area of work, including recent findings regarding foundational sociological issues such as trends in gendered divisions of household labor and over-time, cross-national aggregate estimates of time spent on paid work and leisure.

We also highlight new approaches to the study of time use. This includes an overview of advances in the collection and analysis of time-stamped behavioral data, as well as a discussion of methodological advances in the analysis of the temporal sequential structure of everyday activities.

Eileen M. Crimmins and Yuan S.

Heritage of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

Life expectancy has long been seen as an indicator of the quality of life as well as health of a population. In recent years a number of trends in American mortality indicate growing inequality in life expectancy across socioeconomic and geographic parts of the American population. The United States has also continued to fall behind other countries in its improvement in life expectancy. One reason is our growing mortality in mid-life from deaths of despair. Recent trends have been particularly adverse for non-Hispanic white women with low education. Trends for African Americans in recent years have been more positive and substantial progress has been made in closing the racial gap in life expectancy.

Public health programs will not eliminate these adverse trends without attention to social policy that provides support for economic opportunity and American families. The rise and expansion of large retail firms marks a significant shift in economic organization across communities in the United States. In this article, we describe this shift and discuss implications for worker and community wellbeing.


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We present theoretical perspectives emphasizing concentration of productive resources, rationalization, civic community, and social capital. We then review findings from empirical studies linking retail-sector restructuring to worker and community wellbeing, including a wages and poverty, b jobs and businesses, c civic community, and d health and safety. Although most scholarly and public attention to this issue has focused on understanding impacts of Walmart in particular, our review seeks to highlight more general processes of rationalization, concentration, and a changing industrial structure.

We conclude with a critique and directives for future research.


  • Engage Every Parent!: Encouraging Families to Sign On, Show Up, and Make a Difference;
  • Assisted Reproduction, Late Fertility and Childlessness.
  • Professor in Demography, Departmental Research Coordinator.
  • Fertility by Birth Order among the Descendants of Immigrants in Selected European Countries!
  • The Social Meaning Of Children And Fertility Change In Europe Studies In European Sociology.
  • Oriente y Occidente en la cultura hispánica (Spanish Edition).
  • The diversity induced by migration flows to Western societies has continued to generate scholarly attention, and a sizable new body of work on immigrant incorporation has been produced in the past ten years. Despite differences between the United States as a settler society and Western Europe as a composite of classic nation states, we find an overall pattern of intergenerational assimilation in terms of socioeconomic attainment, social relations, and cultural beliefs. We then qualify this perspective by considering sources of disadvantage for immigrants on both sides of the Atlantic.

    In the United States, the lack of legal status is particularly problematic; in Europe, by contrast, religious difference is the most prominent social factor complicating assimilation. We proffer several general propositions summarizing mechanisms embedded in purposive action, social networks, cultural difference, and institutional structures that drive the interplay of blending and segregating dynamics in the incorporation of immigrants and their children. Studies at the confluence of history and social science address issues of causation in three ways. These three approaches to causal investigation can be contrasted with regard to their modus operandi, the types of patterns they look for, their underlying assumptions, and the challenges they face.

    Morphological inquiries elaborate causal arguments by uncovering patterns in the empirical layout of socio-historical phenomena. To this end, these inquiries draw on descriptive techniques of data formalization. Variable-centered studies engage causal issues by investigating patterns of association among empirical categories under the twofold assumption that these categories a priori have explanatory relevance and each category empirically has the same meaning across cases.

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    Genetic analyses ground their causal claims by identifying patterned processes of emergence or production. At stake in this approach is the analytical specification of how effects and outcomes are brought about. Wendy N. Calculation and quantification have been a critical feature of modern societies, one closely linked to science, markets and administration. In the last thirty years, the pace, purpose and scope of quantification has greatly expanded.

    There has been a corresponding increase in scholarship on quantification.

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    We offer an assessment of the far-flung literature on quantification across four domains where quantification and quantification scholarship have particularly flourished: administration, democratic rule, economics and personal life. In doing so, we seek to stimulate more cross-disciplinary debate and exchange. We caution against unifying accounts of quantification.

    Social science

    We highlight the importance of tracking quantification across different sites in order to appreciate its essential ambivalence and conduct more systematic investigations of interactions between different quantification regimes. Status has long been a core concept motivating sociology as a discipline. As related to the positioning and valuing of individuals, status often takes the form of reputation. How is an individual treated as a cultural object with identity provided by those who have reason to judge?

    Reputation may be given to known individuals, to those who are widely celebrated within a society, and to those whose past achievements are worth recalling through institutionalized forms of memory. Not all reputations are positive, and individuals may be remembered for misdeeds or violations of norms as embedded in the recall of scandal, political and otherwise.

    Both reputation and scandal have effects within the interaction order, local group cultures, and institutional structures, including media. As consensus develops, the linkages of individuals and their known status shape shared conceptions of morality.


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    • Historically, it has been divided into many countries that began with colonization from Spain and Portugal and miscegenation with the indigenous population. It now has distinctive social, cultural, and ethnic characteristics, including Spanish as the nearly common language, considering its command by the educated class of Brazil.

      On average its development is in a middle-income level. Its economic, social, and cultural background is diverse, both between countries and within each nation. Demographically it follows the global trend of demographic aging, although LAC countries are heterogeneous in population sizes and in different stages of demographic and epidemiological transitions. Paths and momentums of mortality, fertility, and migration lead to estimates that by it will reach a maximum of about million people and then start to decrease, in a demographic convergence towards population aging.

      This article reviews research on the coevolution of educational expansion and educational inequality within China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan in the post—World War II period. These societies are often lauded for their spectacular economic growth, widespread commitment to investing in education, and intense competition for academic success. This review first considers organizational sorting and horizontal stratification within the educational system, followed by returns to education in the labor market and then the inequality of educational opportunity, with special attention to the nominal versus positional approaches to measuring education.

      This combination of regional focus and substantive diversity offers the leverage of an approximately matched comparison. The findings demonstrate that there are significant heterogeneities in the coevolution of educational expansion and inequality among these societies with strong cultural and political ties.