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A viii. It is a compilation from other transcripts, and has little original value, its most remarkable feature being that it is bi-lingual, each entry being written in Latin as well as English. G, the few remains of which are in the British Museum Cott. Otho B xi , is now only known by the Dublin copy and by Wheloc's printed version. It is practically a copy of A. The minute and exhaustive investigation of the subject by Mr.

Plummer, from whom some of these particulars are derived, has proved that the original chronicle established by Alfred the Great, or any direct copy of it, is no longer extant. A, B and C, which are practically identical to the year , doubtless represent its substance to that date, but it will be noticed by the student that in all of these, from the middle of the eighth century to the middle of the ninth, the events are misdated by two or three years.

But the later portions of MSS.

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A, C, D and E may all be regarded as contemporary chronicles, and not open to suspicion on chronological grounds. A complete analytical edition in modern English, with corrected dates, is still, and must perhaps remain, a desideratum. His text was compiled from MS. G not then destroyed , with additions from A, and was accompanied by a Latin translation.

Forty-nine years later a more complete edition, with a Latin translation, was published by Edmund Gibson, of Queen's College, Oxford, afterwards Bishop of London. The first translation into modern English, based on Gibson's version, was made by Miss Anna Gurney, and privately printed at Norwich in It was a work of great ability, but its publication was prevented by the appearance in of a text and English translation by Dr.

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The following translation by Dr. Giles appeared in It was based on the materials prepared under the superintendence of Henry Petrie, formerly Keeper of the Records in the Tower. Giles also acknowledged his obligations to Miss Gurney's translation, which he used to complete the chronicle, and to Dr. Ingram's account of the various MSS. It was not carried further, as the projected continuation of the work was merged in the well-known series of records issued under the authority of the Master of the Rolls.

In this series was afterwards in included Mr. Thorpe's six-text edition with a translation. A good translation, which was based on, and completed that given in Monumenta Historica Britannica, by the Rev. Stevenson, of Durham University, appeared in The first inhabitants of this land were Britons; they came from Armenia, [5] and first settled in the south of Britain.

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Then befell it that Picts came from the south from Scythia, with long ships, not many, and first landed in North Hibernia, and there entreated the Scots that they might there abide. But they would not permit them, for they said that they could not all abide there together. And then the Scots said, 'We may nevertheless give you counsel. We know another island eastward of this, where ye may dwell if ye will, and if any one withstand you, we will assist you, so that you may subdue it. And the Picts obtained waves for themselves of the Scots, on this condition, that they should always choose their royal lineage on the woman's side; which they have held ever since.

And then leader was called Reoda; from whom they are named Dalreodi. Sixty years before Christ was born, Gains Julius, emperor of the Romans, with eighty ships, sought Britain. There he was at first distressed by a fierce battle, and a large portion of his army was dispersed. And then he left his army to abide among the Scots, [7] and went south into Gaul, and there collected six hundred ships, with which he came again into Britain. And as they first rushed together, the emperor's 'gerrefa' [8] was slain: he was called Labienus.

Then the Welsh took large and sharp stakes and drove them into the fording place of a certain river under water; this river was called Thames. When the Romans discovered this, then would they not go over the ford. Then fled the Britons to the wood-wastes, and the emperor conquered very many of their chief cities after a great struggle, and departed again into Gaul. Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gains Julius the emperor, first of the Romans, sought the land of Britain; and he crushed the Britons in battle, and overcame them: and nevertheless he was unable to gain any empire there.


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Octavianus reigned fifty-six years; and in the forty-second year of his reign Christ was born. The three astrologers came from the eastern parts in order that they might worship Christ. And the children were slain at Bethlehem, in persecution of Christ by Herod.

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This year died Herod, having stabbed himself, and Archelaus his son succeeded to the government. And the child Christ was brought back again from Egypt. From the beginning of the world to this year, five thousand and two hundred years were gone by. This year Christ was baptized; and he converted Peter and Andrew, and James and John and Philip, and the twelve apostles. This year Christ was crucified; being from the beginning of the world about five thousand two hundred and twenty-six years.

This year the blessed apostle Peter established a bishop's see in Rome. This year James, the brother of John, was slain by Herod. This year the emperor Claudius came to Britain, and subdued a large part of the island; and he also added the island of Orkney to the dominion of the Romans. This year Claudius, second of the Roman kings, sought the land of Britain, and brought under his power the greater part of the island, and also subjected the Orkney Islands to the dominion of the Romans. Then Nero succeeded to the empire after Claudius: he nearly lost the island of Britain through his cowardice.

Mark the Evangelist begins to write the gospel in Egypt. This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this same year was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in the book called 'Actus Apostolorum. This year Claudius, king of the Romans, went with an army into Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the Picts and Welsh to the rule of the Romans. This year Peter suffered on the cross, and Paul was slain.

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This year Titus, the son of Vespasian, slew one hundred and eleven thousand Jews in Jerusalem. This year Titus succeeded to the empire, after Vespasian; he who said that he had lost the day on which he had done no good. This year John the Apostle wrote the book which is called Apocalypse. This year Simon the apostle, the kinsman of Christ was crucified, and John the Evangelist rested in death on that day at Ephesus. This year pope Clement died. This year Eleutherius obtained the bishopric of Rome, and held it in great glory for twelve years.

And they afterwards continued in the right faith till the reign of Diocletian. This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and held it fifteen years; and in the same year Lucius, king of the Britons, sent and begged baptism of him. And he soon sent it him; and they continued in the true faith until the time of Diocletian. This year Severus succeeded to the empire, and went with an army into Britain, and subdued a great part of the island by battle; and then, for the protection of the Britons, he built a rampart of turf, and a broad wall thereon, from sea to sea.

He reigned seventeen years, and then ended his days at York. His son Bassianus succeeded to the empire: another son of his was called Geta; he died. In this year the Holy-rood [11] was found. This year Maximus the emperor obtained the empire; he was born in the land of Britain, and went thence into Gaul. And he there slew the emperor Gratian, and drove his brother, who was called Valentinian, out of the country.

And Valentinian afterwards gathered an army and slew Maximus, and obtained the empire. In these days the heresy of Pelagius arose throughout the world. This year the Goths took the city of Rome by storm, and after this the Romans never ruled in Britain; and this was about eleven hundred and ten years after it had been built.

Altogether they ruled in Britain four hundred and seventy years since Caius Julius first sought the land.

This year the Romans collected all the treasures that were in Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that no one has since been able to find them; and some they carried with them into Gaul. This year Palladius [12] the bishop was sent to the Scots by pope Celestinus, that he might confirm their faith. This year Patrick was sent by pope Celestine to preach baptism to the Scots. And then they sent to the Angles, and entreated the like of the ethelings of the Angles. This year John the Baptist revealed his head to two monks, who came from the east to offer up their prayers at Jerusalem, on the spot which was formerly Herod's residence.

This year Martianus and Valentinus succeeded to the empire, and reigned seven years. And in their days Hengist and Horsa, invited by Vortigern king of the Britons, landed in Britain on the shore which is called Wippidsfleet; at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards they fought against them. King Vortigern gave them land in the south-east of this country, on condition that they should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the Picts, and had the victory wheresoever they came.

They then sent to the Angles; desired a larger force to be sent, and caused them to be told the worthlessness of the Britons, and the excellencies of the land. Then they soon sent thither a larger force in aid of the others. At that time there came men from three tribes in Germany; from the Old-Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes.

From the Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wightwarians, that is, the tribe which now dwells in Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which is still called the race of Jutes. Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and Horsa: they were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden: from this Woden sprang all our royal families, and those of the South-humbrians also. And in their days Vortigern invited the Angles thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Wippidsfleet:.

This year the blessed abbat Benedict, by the glory of his miracles, shone in this world, as the blessed Gregory relates in his book of Dialogues. This year two ealdormen came to Britain, Ceodric and Cynric his son, with five ships, at the place which is called Cerdics-ore, and the same day they fought against the Welsh.

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This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose name was Natan-leod, and five thousand men with him. After that the country was named Natan-lea, as far Cerdicsford, [Charford. This year [15] St. Benedict the abbat, father of all monks, went to heaven. This year the West-Saxons came to Britain with three ships, at the place which is called Cerdic's-ore, and Stuf and Whitgar fought against the Britons, and put them to flight. And from that time forth the royal offspring of the West-Saxons reigned.