MIT Microbiology Program :: Microbiology at MIT
Language: English. Brand new Book. The regulatory mechanisms are diverse, sometimes redundant, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that, at the genetic level, the range of mechanisms may be limited only by the permutations and combina tions available. The resultant interaction should encourage new and extended ideas for the improve ment of strains and for the generation of new regulatory combina tions to enhance microbial chemical production from cheap and abundant including waste substrates.
New genetic regulatory combina tions require new studies of physiology and biochemistry to assure understanding and control of the system.
Synthetic Biology Explained
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This item is printed on demand - Print on Demand Neuware - The normal course of most biologically catalyzed processes is tightly regulated at the genetic and physiological levels. This book is printed on demand. Seller Inventory I Items related to Genetic Engineering of Microorganisms for Chemicals Alexander Hollaender.
Publisher: Springer , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis The normal course of most biologically catalyzed processes is tightly regulated at the genetic and physiological levels. Baculoviruses have a gene which is expressed at very high levels late in their infection cycle, filling the nucleus of the cell with many-sided bodies full of a protein which is not needed to produce more viruses, but is necessary for the virus's spread in the wild.
Applications of Microbial Engineering
In a vector cloning system, this gene is replaced by one that the biotechnologist wants expressed. Being an animal expression system, baculoviruses produce proteins that are glycosylated addition of carbohydrates like the proteins in animals, making it an attractive option for the production of biopharmaceuticals. In addition, baculoviruses are non-infective and non-pathogenic to vertebrates. In a closed population with no crossing-over between the loci, only the double heterozygotes for the lethal mutations survive. It is a late-replicating, inactive X-chromosome.
Named after its discoverer, Murray Barr A and G have a similar structure and are called purines; T, C and U have a similar structure and are called pyrimidines.
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A base joined to a ribose sugar joined to a phosphate group is a nucleotide - the building block of nucleic acids. They are often mutagenic. The size of a nucleic acid molecule is often described in terms of the number of base pairs symbol: bp or thousand base pairs kilobase pairs; symbol: kb; a more convenient unit it contains.
See transition; transversion. At the beginning of the fermentation, an inoculum is introduced into fresh medium, with no addition or removal of medium for the duration of the process. They are largely responsible for the antibody-mediated or humoral immune response; they give rise to the antibody-producing plasma cells and some other cells of the immune system. See B lymphocytes. It exists as a right-handed helix. For most biennial plants, the two growing seasons have to be separated by a period of cold temperature sufficient to induce flowering and fruit formation. Many biological molecules bind extremely tightly and specifically to other molecules: enzymes to their substrates; antibodies to their antigens; DNA strands to their complementary strands; and so on.
Binding can be characterized by a binding constant or association constant K a , or its inverse, the dissociation constant K d. The genus name always has an initial capital; the specific epithet is never capitalized, even though it may be derived from a proper name e. Both terms in the binomial are italicized. Based on the system of classification developed by Carolus Linnaeus. Usually it refers to the accumulation of metals or other compounds e.
Many organisms - plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, etc. Bio-accumulation is important as part of the microbial mining cycle q.
A new genetic engineering tool will help open the floodgates of microbial metabolite applications
See also biosorption; microbial mining. Animals have been used extensively in drug research in bio-assays for the pharmacological activity of drugs. However, bio-assays are now usually developed using bacteria or animal or plant cells, as these are usually much easier to handle than whole animals or plants, are cheaper to make and keep, and avoid the ethical problems associated with testing of animals.
Sometimes used to detect minute amounts of substances that influence or are essential to growth. See biotransformation. Any process using deliberately introduced living organisms to restrain the growth and development of other, very often pathogenic, organisms, such as the use of spider mites to control cassava mealy bug, or the introduction of myxomatosis into Australia to control rabbits.
The term also applies to use of disease-resistant crop cultivars. Biotechnology approaches biocontrol in various ways, such as using fungi, viruses or bacteria which are known to attack an insect or weed pest.
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The usefulness of bioconversion is much the same as that of biotransformation - in particular its extreme specificity and ability to work in moderate conditions. However, bioconversion has several other properties, including the possibility of having several chemical steps.
A major commercial application is in the manufacture of steroids. The "basic" steroid molecule, often isolated from plants, is itself a very complicated molecule, and not one that is easy to modify by normal chemical means to produce the very specific molecules needed for drug use. However, a particular type of bioconversion that attacks only specific bits of the molecule can be used.
Bioconversion is particularly useful for introducing chemical changes at specific points in large, complex molecules. Materials that can be easily biodegraded are colloquially termed biodegradable. The variety of species species diversity or other taxa of animals, micro-organisms and plants in a natural community or habitat, or of communities in a particular environment ecological diversity , or of genetic variation in a species genetic diversity, q. The maintenance of a high level of biodiversity is important for the stability of ecosystems.
The variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations, encompassing genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. For example, rapeseed oil or fish liver oil can be used in place of diesel fuel in modified engines. A commercial application is the use of modified rapeseed oil, which - as rapeseed methyl ester RME - can be used in modified diesel engines, and is sometimes named bio-diesel. In particular, it is concerned with organizing bio-molecular databases, in getting useful information out of such databases, in utilizing powerful computers for analysing such information, and in integrating information from disparate biological sources.
The DNA is mixed with small metal particles - usually tungsten or gold - a fraction of a micrometre across. These are then fired into a cell at very high speed. They puncture the cell and carry the DNA into the cell. Biolistics has an advantage over transfection, transduction, etc. Thus use of biolistics has inserted DNA into animal, plant and fungal cells, and into mitochondria inside cells. Biological containment can take two forms: making the organism unable to survive in the outside environment, or making the outside environment inhospitable to the organism.
The latter is rarely suitable for bacteria, which, in principle, could survive almost anywhere. Thus for bacteria and yeasts, the favoured approach is to mutate the genes in the organism so that they require a supply of a specific nutrient that is usually available only in the laboratory. If they get out, they then cannot grow. Making the environment unfriendly to the organism is partly a biological control, partly a physical one. Thus, some of the first genetically engineered rice strains were developed in England which is too cold for rice to grow and tried in the field in Arizona where it is too dry.
erbulacni.tk Biological containment may also involve the use of vector molecules and host organisms which have been genetically disabled such that they can survive only in the peculiar conditions provided by the experimenter and which are unavailable outside the laboratory. The organic mass that can be used either as a source of energy or for its chemical components. Specific types include bio-insecticides and bio-fungicides.